Learning log in class (Week 13,28/01/2011)
My mother is a teacher.
The government planned to dissolve the parliament in April.
3. พระราชวังนี้สร้างขึ้นใน 1912
The palace was built in 1912.
That house looks so big.
My brother really likes the thick colorful fairy tale book with lots of beautiful picture than Mom bought him.
Determiner opinion size shape condition age color origin noun
An ugly big round chipped old blue French vase
Determiner / adj. /N adjunct/present pt/past pt.
Adv. + to infinitive phrase/infinitive phrase/present pt/past pt /N phrase/adj. phrase/preposition phrase/relation clause (adj. clause)
Learning log out class
Nouns are often preceded by the words the, a, or an. These words are called DETERMINERS. They indicate the kind of reference which the noun has. The determiner the is known as the DEFINITE ARTICLE. It is used before both singular and plural nouns:
The determiner a (or an, when the following noun begins with a vowel) is the INDEFINITE ARTICLE. It is used when the noun is singular:
The articles the and a/an are the most common determiners, but there are many others:
Many determiners express quantity:
Perhaps the most common way to express quantity is to use a numeral. We look at numerals as determiners in the next section.
In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified. Adjectives are one of the traditional eight English parts of speech, though linguists today distinguish adjectives from words such as determiners that were formerly considered to be adjectives. In this paragraph, "main", "more", and "traditional" are adjectives.
โดยทั่วไปการวางตำแหน่ง คุณศัพท์ในประโยคจะวางได้ 2 แบบ
• ใช้วางประกอบข้างหน้านาม ( attributive use )
She is a beautiful girl. เธอเป็นคนสวย ( beautiful ขยายนาม girl)
These are small envelopes. พวกนี้เป็นซองเล็กๆ ( small ขยายนาม envelopes)
• ใช้วางเป็นส่วนของกริยา ( predicative use ) โดยอยู่ตามหลัง verb to be เมื่อ adjective นั้นขยาย noun หรือ pronoun ที่อยู่หน้า verb to be
The girl is beautiful. เด็กผู้หญิงคนนั้นสวย ( beautiful เป็นคุณศัพท์ที่ตามหลัง verb to be ขยาย girl และ the เป็นคุณศัพท์ขยาย girl เช่นกัน)
These envelopes are small. ซองพวกนี้มีขนาดเล็ก( small เป็นคุณศัพท์ที่ตามหลัง verb to be ขยาย envelopes ,these เป็น คุณศัพท์ขยาย envelopes เช่นกัน )
She has been sick all week. เธอป่วยมาตลอดอาทิตย์ ( sick เป็น คุณศัพท์ ที่ตามหลัง verb to be ขยายสรรพนาม she )
That cat is fat and white. แมวตัวนั้นอ้วนและมีสีขาว
( That เป็นคุณศัพท์ประกอบหน้านาม fat และ white เป็นคุณศัพท์ซึ่งเป็นส่วนของกริยาขยาย cat
In grammar, a noun adjunct or attributive noun or noun premodifier is a noun that modifies another noun and is optional — meaning that it can be removed without changing the grammar of the sentence. For example, in the phrase "chicken soup" the noun adjunct "chicken" modifies the noun "soup". It is irrelevant whether the resulting compound noun is spelled in one or two parts. "Field" is a noun adjunct in both "field player" and "fieldhouse".
Example: In beef stew, the word beef is a noun adjunct.
In linguistics, a participle is a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives.It can be used in compound verb tenses or voices (periphrasis), or as a modifier. A phrase composed of a participle and other words is a participial phrase.
The present participle is formed by adding the ending "--ing" to the infinitive (dropping any silent "e" at the end of the infinitive):
to sing = singing
to take =taking
to bake = baking
to be = being
to have = having
A. The present participle may often function as an adjective:
That's an interesting book.
That tree is a weeping willow.
B. The present participle can be used as a noun denoting an activity (this form is also called a gerund):
Swimming is good exercise.
Traveling is fun.
C. The present participle can indicate an action that is taking place, although it cannot stand by itself as a verb. In these cases it generally modifies a noun (or pronoun), an adverb, or a past participle:
Thinking myself lost, I gave up all hope.
Looking ahead is important.
D. The present participle may be used with "while" or "by" to express an idea of simultaneity ("while") or causality ("by") :
He finished dinner while watching television.
By using a dictionary he could find all the words.
While speaking on the phone, she doodled.
By calling the police you saved my life!
E. The present participle of the auxiliary "have" may be used with the past participle to describe a past condition resulting in another action:
Having spent all his money, he returned home.
Having told herself that she would be too late, she accelerated.
In linguistics, a participle is a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives.It can be used in compound verb tenses or voices (periphrasis), or as a modifier.
A past participle indicates past or completed action or time. It is often called the 'ed' form as it is formed by adding d or ed, to the base form of regular verbs, however it is also formed in various other ways for irregular verbs.
It can be used to form a verb phrase as part of the present perfect tense.
I have learnt English. (Learnt is part of the verb phrase 'have learnt')
It can be used to form the passive voice.
Her hair was well brushed.
It can also be used as an adjective.
As an adjective: He had a broken arm. (Broken is used here as an adjective.)
Here is a comprehensive list of irregular verbs.
"Adverbs" redirects here. For the Daniel Handler novel, see Adverbs (novel).
An adverb is a part of speech. It is any word that modifies any part of speech or other verbs other than a noun (modifiers of nouns are primarily adjectives and determiners). Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs.
Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to what extent?. This function is called the adverbial function, and is realized not just by single words (i.e., adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.
• I found the film incredibly dull.
• The meeting went well, and the directors were extremely happy with the outcome!
• Crabs are known for walking sideways.
• I often have eggs for breakfast.
• However, I shall not eat fried eggs again.
• The Five Types of Adverbs
• Adverbs of Manner: Adverbs of manner provide information on how someone does something.
• For example: Jack drives very carefully.
• Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time provide information on when something happens.
• For example: We'll let you know our decision next week.
• Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency provide information on how often something happens.
• For example: They usually get to work at eight o'clock.
• Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree provide information concerning how much of something is done. For example: They like playing golf a lot.
• Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment provide a comment, or opinion about a situation.
• For example: Fortunately, there were enough seats left for the concert.
• Adverbs are usually formed by adding '-ly' to an adjective.
• For example: quiet - quietly, careful - carefully, careless - carelessly
• Adjectives ending in '-le' change to '-ly'.
• For example: possible - possibly, probable - probably, incredible - incredibly
• Adjectives ending in '-y' change to '-ily'.
• For example: She visited her friends last year.
Adverbs of Frequency: Adverbs of frequency are placed before the main verb (not the auxiliary verb).
• For example: He often goes to bed late. Do you sometimes get up early?
• Adverbs of Degree: Adverbs of degree are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence).
• For example: She'll attend the meeting as well.
• Adverbs of Comment: Adverbs of comment are placed at the beginning of a sentence.
• For example: Luckily, I was able to come to the presentation.
• Important Exceptions to Adverb Placement
• Some adverbs are placed at the beginning of a sentence to provide more emphasis.
• For example: Now you tell me you can't come!
• Adverbs of frequency are placed after the verb 'to be' when used as the main verb of the sentence.
• For example: Jack is often late for work.
Infinitive คือ กริยาที่นำหน้าด้วย to (Infinitive with "to") เช่น to play,
to study,to arrest และไม่นำหน้าด้วย to (Infinitive without "to")
โดยเฉพาะหลังกริยาช่วย can,will,may,must etc. เช่น can sing, will go,
may happen นอกจากนี้ Infinitiveจะทำหน้าที่เหมือนอย่างคำนาม (n.)
,คำคุณศัพท์ (adj.) ,และคำวิเศษณ์ (adv.)
A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount. In the sentence She went to the store, to is a preposition which shows direction. In the sentence He came by bus, by is a preposition which shows manner. In the sentence They will be here at three o'clock, at is a preposition which shows time and in the sentence It is under the table, under is a preposition which shows place.
Preposition Object of the Preposition Prepositional Phrase
to the store to the store
by bus by bus
at three o'clock at three o'clock
under the table under the table
A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun phrase, most commonly a noun. For example, the phrase "the man who wasn't there" contains the noun man, which is modified by the relative clause who wasn't there. A relative clause can also modify a pronoun, as in "he to whom I have written", or a noun phrase which already contains a modifier, as in "the black panther in the tree, which is about to pounce". The complete phrase (modified noun phrase plus modifying relative clause) is also a noun phrase.